- Section Notes
- Inactive Loans and Grants Notes
- Time Period Notes
- Loan Status
- Glossary of Terms
- Notes for the 2011 edition
The annual update of the "U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants," informally known as the "Greenbook," contains summary data of United States Government (USG) foreign assistance since 1945 and detailed annual data for the last four fiscal years. Foreign assistance is categorized as either economic assistance or military assistance. Non-concessional support is also presented. The contents of each section are explained in further detail below.
Foreign assistance is reported by recipient country and organized by geographic region, without distinction between developed and developing countries. The report includes a world summary page, regional summary pages, and individual country pages.
Any country which has received cumulative economic or military assistance over $500,000 since 1945 and is considered an "Independent State" by the U.S. Department of State merits an individual country page. Generally, country names are those officially designated by the U.S. Department of State. Specific information on country/region names and groupings can be found in the Country and Regional Notes.
From 1955 to the present, annual data represent total new grant obligations and loan authorizations in the given fiscal year. Prior to 1955, grant data represent net obligations and loan data represent net authorizations. Where obligations are not available, appropriations or disbursements are used. Historical data are updated and may not reconcile with past editions of the Greenbook. All data are reported in historical U.S. dollars. Columns and rows may not sum due to rounding. Values less than $50,000 are denoted as 0.0.
The accounts that make up each row of the country pages are listed below. All accounts are presented by funding agency, with the exception of accounts funded by the Executive Office of the President, which are credited to the implementing agency.
A brief explanation of the contents of each section (economic assistance, military assistance, and non-concessional support) is provided below. The economic assistance section is further divided by funding agency. For appropriations funded by the Executive Office of the President, the program is listed under the implementing agency. The tables provide a detailed listing of "accounts" that comprise each section and funding agency for the current year. For the purpose of this publication, "accounts" refer to Federal appropriation accounts.
Total economic assistance is divided among the following funding categories: United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and Predecessor, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and Other Economic Assistance.
The USAID and Predecessor Table shows the comprehensive list of accounts that comprise the funding categories for USAID.
|Total, USAID and Predecessor||10,887,680,587|
|Economic Support Fund||5,193,534,222|
|Child Survival and Health||134,715,286|
|Other USAID Assistance||3,420,845,636|
|Assistance for Eastern Europe and the Baltic States||22,141,178|
|Assistance for Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia (AEECA)||481,762,823|
|Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union||3,765,498|
|Capital Investment Fund||151,966,329|
|Civilian Stabilization Initiative||4,422,687|
|Complex Crises Fund||16,999,999|
|Development Credit Authority*||22,724,753|
|Foreign National Employees Separation Liability Fund||4,739,320|
|Gifts and Contributions, Inter-American Foundation||92,430,200|
|HIV/AIDS Working Capital Fund||401,012,753|
|International Disaster and Famine Assistance||1,075,549,747|
|Operating Expenses, Office of Inspector General||26,972,427|
|Payment to the Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund||45,000,000|
|Transition Initiatives, International Assistance Program||66,455,871|
|Working Capital Fund, International Assistance Program||24,147,861|
|* USAID's DCA provides loan guarantees. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 requires obligations in support of these loan guarantees.|
Beginning in 2008 funding for Child Survival and Health is appropriated through the new Global Health and Child Survival account under the Department of State.
Beginning in 2008 funding for USAID's Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund is appropriated through the Department of State's Payment to the Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund.
Beginning in 2009 the Assistance for Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia (AEECA) account merges the appropriations of the former Assistance for Eastern Europe and the Baltic States and Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union accounts.
Beginning in 2010, USAID obligated funding for the new Civilian Stabilization Initiative and Complex Crises Fund (CCF) accounts.
The Department of Agriculture Table shows the comprehensive list of all food aid accounts and USDA's technical assistance programs.
Food Aid is comprised of historic legislative programs and the current legislative programs of PL-480 and Section 416(b). Food for Education was funded under Section 416(b), however in FY2004 it became a separate appropriation account known as the McGovern Dole Global Food for Education. All Food Aid is funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). PL-480 Title I programs are funded and implemented by USDA. PL-480 Titles II and III programs are funded by USDA and implemented by USAID.
In 2009, the Department of Agriculture did not provide separate reporting of the two Food for Progress funding accounts, the Public Law 480 Program Account and the Commodity Credit Corporation. For 2009, all Food for Progress funding is included under Title I.
In 2010, the Department of Agriculture did provide separate reporting of the two Food for Progress funding accounts, the Public Law 480 Program Account and the Commodity Credit Corporation Fund. The former was reported under Title I; the latter was reported under Other Food Aid Programs.
In 2011, the Department of Agriculture was not able to report Fiscal Year 2011 obligations for the Foreign Agricultural Service.
|Total, Department of Agriculture||1,961,531,271|
|Food Aid Total||1,890,304,603|
|Public Law 480 Program Account, Title I||12,451,920|
|Public Law 480 Title II Grants||1,638,220,749|
|McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program||62,964,780|
|Other Food Aid Programs*||176,667,154|
|Other USDA Assistance||71,226,668|
|National Forest System, Forest Service||68,073,187|
|Salaries and Expenses, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service||3,153,481|
|*Beginning in 2010, Food Aid for Title III (USAID Implemented) and Section 416(b)/CCC are now reported under Other Food Aid Programs.|
Beginning in 2010, USDA reported funding for the Commodity Credit Corporation, Export Loan Program Account and the Economic Research Service.
The Department of State table shows the comprehensive list of international assistance accounts for the State Department.
|Total, Department of State||12,158,449,003|
|Global Health and Child Survival||7,037,946,907|
|Global HIV/AIDs Initiative||29,949,680|
|Andean Counterdrug Initiative||530,809|
|International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement||2,624,558,552|
|Migration and Refugee Assistance||1,685,512,084|
|Migration and Refugee Assistance, State||1,632,064,136|
|United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund||53,447,948|
|Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs||572,388,967|
|Other State Assistance||207,562,004|
|Diplomatic and Consular Programs||6,686,670|
|Educational and Cultural Exchange Programs||905,527|
|National Endowment for Democracy||115,733,804|
Beginning in 2008 new funding for Global HIV/AIDS Initiative is appropriated through the new Global Health and Child Survival account.
Beginning in 2008 new funding for USAID's Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund is appropriated through the Department of State's Payment to the Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund. Only the portion of the Department of State's Payment to the Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund attributed to USAID personnel is included as foreign assistance.
Department of State, Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related Programs (NADR) historical obligations were revised in FY2010 due to improved reporting.
The Other Economic Assistance Table shows the comprehensive list of foreign assistance outside of USAID, the Department of Agriculture and the Department of State. Details on Inactive Loans and Grants funding categories are in a later section titled "Inactive Loans and Grants Notes."
|Total, Other Economic Assistance||4,064,975,644|
|Millennium Challenge Corporation||745,862,905|
|Department of Defense Security Assistance||887,942,579|
|Defense Working Capital Funds, Defense||228,155|
|Foreign Military Financing Program||200,000|
|Former Soviet Union Threat Reduction, Defense||196,562,904|
|Operation and Maintenance, Navy||18,366|
|Operations and Maintenance, Army||374,808,287|
|Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid Defense||274,522,000|
|Other Active Grant Programs||2,041,670,160|
|African Development Foundation||34,868,635|
|Assets Forfeiture Fund, Justice||380,945|
|Assistance to Territories, Insular Affairs||15,911,538|
|Compact of Free Association, Department of Interior||265,250,732|
|Department of Justice, Anti-Trust Division||3,809|
|Department of Labor, Departmental Management||51,509,546|
|Disease Control, Research, and Training, CDCl||774,862,254|
|Environmental Programs and Management, EPA||21,745,442|
|Environmental Protection Agency, Science and Technology||445,888|
|Federal Aviation Administration, Operations||402,681|
|Federal Trade Commission, Salaries and Expenses||314,082|
|General Departmental Management, Departmental Management||4,952,000|
|Gifts and Donations, Centers for Disease Control||1,074,881|
|International Affairs Technical Assistance||24,656,812|
|International Trade Administration, Operations & Administration||3,697,000|
|Multinational Species Conservation Fund, U.S. FWS||13,133,080|
|National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH||497,777,000|
|NOAA, Operations, Research & Facilities||635,713|
|Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation, U.S. FWS||3,967,731|
|North American Wetlands Conservation Fund, U.S. FWS||26,408,300|
|Patent and Trademark Office, Salaries and Expenses||350,000|
|Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund||229,835,937|
|Salaries and Expenses, ATF, Justice||2,203,264|
|Salaries and Expenses, Drug Enforcement Administration||2,047,910|
|Salaries and Expenses, Federal Bureau of Investigation||1,003,995|
|Scientific & Technical Research & Services, NIST||25,000|
|Trade and Development Agency||41,242,041|
|Inactive Programs||See Inactive Notes|
The Department of Health and Human Services did not report funding for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), or the National Institutes of Health. For the first time, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) reported.
The Voluntary Contributions to Multilateral Organizations Table includes contributions to any International Financial Institution (IFI) with individual appropriation accounts as well as other voluntary contributions to international organizations. Non-voluntary contributions, or assessed membership fees, are included in non-concessional support.
|Total, Voluntary Contributions to Multilateral Organizations||2,653,009,330|
|Contribution to the African Development Fund||65,828,500|
|Contribution to the Asian Development Bank||211,372,828|
|Contribution to the Clean Technology Fund||184,620,000|
|Contribution to the Enterprise for the Americas Multilateral Invest. Fund||24,950,000|
|Contribution to the Inter-American Development Bank||20,958,000|
|Contribution to the International Development Association||1,232,530,000|
|Contribution to the International Fund for Agricultural Development||29,440,002|
|Contribution to the Strategic Climate Fund||49,900,000|
|Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (Fund)||99,800,000|
|Global Environment Facility||89,820,000|
|Global Fund to Fight HIV/AID, Malaria and Tuberculosis, U.S.||297,300,000|
|International Organizations and Programs, State||346,490,000|
Important Note: Official Development Assistance (ODA) is reported by all donor countries, including the United States, to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). All programs listed above under "Economic Assistance" are considered ODA eligible by the DAC. However, Greenbook data and ODA are not directly comparable. The OECD/DAC has additional program coverage, reports in calendar year as opposed to fiscal year and emphasizes disbursements rather than obligations.
The Military Assistance Table includes the comprehensive list of military accounts with a non-economic development purpose. Military accounts with a development purpose are included under "Other Economic Assistance."
|Total, Military Assistance||17,867,487,057|
|Afghanistan Security Forces Fund||9,944,117,053|
|Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities, Defense||731,001,000|
|Excess Defense Articles||39,300,752|
|Foreign Military Financing Program||5,319,776,000|
|Former Soviet Union Threat Reduction, Defense||111,776,252|
|International Military Education and Training||105,791,000|
|Iraq Security Forces Fund||962,000,000|
|Military Assistance Programs||14,345,000|
|Pakistan Counterinsurgency Fund||335,000,000|
|Peace Keeping Operations||304,390,000|
Non-Concessional support is broken into the following categories: Non-Concessional U.S. Loans and Annual Obligations to International Organizations. Non-Concessional U.S. Loans consist of Export-Import Bank Loans and Other Non-Concessional U.S. Loans, including Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). Since 1999, OPIC annual loan data are the only other non-concessional loans. However, due to limited reporting by OPIC, it is impossible to separate the amount of direct loans from loan guarantees. The data on this website are direct loans and loan guarantees.
|Non-Concessional U.S. Loans||8,434,292,875|
|Overseas Private Investment Corporation||1,852,703,800|
|Contributions to International Organizations [Assessed]||3,491,593,000|
|Contributions to International Organizations, State||1,532,362,000|
|Contributions to Peacekeeping Activities, State||1,959,231,000|
Inactive Loans and Grants Notes
The report covers development assistance over a period of more than fifty years. There have been a number of changes in the types of assistance programs covered. The following tables detail the accounts that have become inactive, the last year of reported data, and the total funding assistance over the life of the account.
Some historical data are not available by individual accounts because annual data were subsumed into aggregate funding categories. For example, subsumed in historical USAID Loan and Grant data are obligations from such appropriation accounts as: Sahel Development Program, Sub-Saharan Disaster Assistance, Special Assistance, Defense Support, Direct Forces Support, Indochina Postwar Reconstruction, Middle East Special Requirements Fund, and Assistance to Portuguese Colonies in Africa. Obligations for these accounts are not available due to past reporting procedures.
|Account||Last Year of Funding||Total Amount (dollars)|
|Total, Inactive Loans||8,064,204,000|
|Lend Lease Silver||1949||61,300,000|
|Government and Relief in Occupied Areas (GARIOLA)||1950||800,000,000|
|COG Offset to Grant||1952||490,000,000|
|Defense Mobilization Development||1953||6,400,000|
|Strategic Materials Development||1954||11,600,000|
|Defense Materials Development||1960||61,102,000|
|UN Headquarters and Bonds||1964||141,300,000|
|Reconstruction Finances Corporation (RFC) Note||1969||63,000,000|
|U.S. Surplus Property||1972||1,430,601,000|
|European Atomic Community||1974||72,400,000|
|Emergency Food Aid||1975||242,200,000|
|Binational Center Loans||1984||2,421,000|
|Admin Area Development||1987||11,147,000|
|Social Progress Trust Fund||1988||500,433,000|
|Account||Last Year of Funding||Total Amount (dollars)|
|Total, Inactive Grants||10,846,395,000|
|International Committee on Refugees||1947||3,700,000|
|UN Relief and Rehabilitation Agency (UNRRA)||1947||1,077,400,000|
|UN Relief and Works Agency - Palestine Refugees||1948||317,100,000|
|UNRRA and Interim Aid||1948||1,262,000,000|
|UNRRA and Post UNRRA||1948||407,201,000|
|International Children's Fund||1951||80,800,000|
|Berlin Investment Fund||1953||12,900,000|
|Pakistan Relief Act (P.L. 77)||1953||67,400,000|
|Post UNRRA Interim Aid||1953||499,500,000|
|Famine Relief (P.L. 216)||1954||1,600,000|
|Foot and Mouth Disease||1955||93,800,000|
|Civilian Relief in Korea (CRIK)||1956||420,200,000|
|Government and Relief in Occupied Areas (GARIOA)||1967||3,733,902,000|
|Social Progress Trust Fund||1976||106,300,000|
|Development and Support||1977||751,550,000|
|Institute of American Affairs (IAA)||1977||55,705,000|
|Refugees from Russia||1982||280,000,000|
|NOTE: Some inactive programs have been superseded by similar and more recent programs.|
Time Period Notes
Country and regional pages contain historical summary data, the most current four years of annual data, cumulative total and information on loan status. Summary data are available for each legislative authority: Post-War Relief (1946–1948), Marshall Plan (1949–1952), Mutual Security Act (1953–1961), and Foreign Assistance Act (1962–present). Detailed annual data on prior years can be found on this website.
Total loans and grants is the sum of annual data from 1945 to the present. The portion ascribed to loans is reported in the "Of which Loans" column. The outstanding amount as of September 30th, 2010 is the total amount due the U.S. Government for all loans made during the period 1946 to the present, as reported by the U.S. Department of Treasury. Decreases in the outstanding amount reflect both repayments on loans and debt forgiveness. Private loans to foreign entities that are guaranteed and/or insured by the U.S. Government are not included in this publication. Claims acquired by the U.S. Government upon default under these programs are also not included, however, capitalization of the defaults are included. Therefore, outstanding loan balance may be greater than total loans and grants.
Glossary of Terms
- An act of the United States Congress allowing U.S. federal agencies to incur obligations for specified purposes.
- Substantive legislation that establishes legal operation of a federal program, either indefinitely or for a specific period of time, and sanctions particular program funding levels.
- Fiscal Year (FY)
- An accounting period of 365 days (366 in leap years), but not necessarily starting on January 1. The fiscal year of the United States Government begins on October 1 and ends on September 30 and is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Prior to FY 1977, the U.S. fiscal year ran from July 1 through June 30. The three-month transition period in 1976 (July 1 through September 30) is treated as a distinct reporting period.
- Transfers of goods, services, or cash for which the recipient incurs no legal debt.
- Transfers for which the recipient incurs a legal debt and repayment is required over time, with or without interest, in convertible currencies or in kind.
- A binding agreement that will result in outlays, immediately or in the future. Budget resources must be available before obligations can be legally incurred.
Notes for the 2011 edition
- For the first time, South Sudan is reported on an individual country page.
- U.S. Government loan amounts for FY1999 through FY2011, reported by the Department of Treasury Foreign Credit Reporting System (FCRS) Database are now reported by loan signature date – rather than by loan reported date. Consequently some Title I, OPIC, FMF, and EXIM loans have shifted the fiscal year reported.
- The Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA/FAS) was unable to report FY2011 data. Food aid is incorporated through public reports. All non-food aid foreign assistance implemented by FAS is not reported in the current edition.
- For the first time, the Department of Defense reported the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.
- The Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) submitted Foreign Military Financing (FMF), International Military Education and Training (IMET), and Other Military Assistance (MAP) programs for FY1970 through FY2011. The revisions to the historical military assistance are minor compared to those from last year’s report.
- For the second year, the Department of Health and Human Services was unable to report on the Food and Drug Administration’s foreign assistance activities. The HHS’s Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response reported for the first time for FY2010, but was unable to report their FY2011 foreign assistance. The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) reported for the first time in FY2011.
- Due to a change in methodology, all negative obligations were removed. As a result some USAID data from FY2001 to FY2010 were revised upward.
- The double-counting of some Department of Interior’s Compact of Free Association foreign assistance in FY2006 and FY2007 was removed.
- For the first time, the Department of Justice reported on the International Asset Forfeiture Program.